Cryptography is very famous nowadays, what it actually is? It is a method of storing and transmitting data in a particular form. This is only for those who intended to read and process it. It is actually associated with the process of converting ordinary plain text into unintelligible text and vice-versa. In this method Cryptographers store and transmit data in a particular form, so that only it couldn’t read and process by any person other than intended. Cryptography secures the data from theft and alteration.
Modern cryptography concerns with the following objectives:
Its Confidentiality – Information inside cannot be decode by anyone
Integrity – There isn’t any alteration option of Information. Nobody can alter.
Non-repudiation – Once the transfer has completed, the sender cannot deny his/her intentions in the transmission of the information
Authentication – Confirmation process for both side. Sender and receiver.
So many banking sectors are using it. Like transactions of cards, computer passwords, and e- commerce transactions.
Types of Cryptography
There are three types of cryptography people mostly use:1. Symmetric-key cryptography
2. Hash functions.
3. Public-key cryptography
Symmetric-key Cryptography: In this way, both the sender and receiver share a single key. This key is used by sender to encrypt plain text and send back the encrypted text (cipher text) to the receiver. Upon receipt of that information, the receive can use the same single key to decrypt that information and then recover the plain text from the cipher text.Public-Key Cryptography: This is the most revolutionary concept in the last 300-400 years. This type of cryptography, we use two related keys (public and private key). Private key will be secret and it will not share publicly, while Public key may freely distributed in public. The public key is used for encryption and for decryption private key is used.
Hash Functions: No need of any public key or symmetric key in Hash Functions. A fixed-length of hash value is computed as per the plain text in this system. It makes impossible to recover the contents of the plain text. So many operating systems are using hash functions for encrypting password.