Cryptography Definition in simple words

Cryptography Definition

 

Cryptography is very famous nowadays, what it actually is? It is a method of storing and transmitting data in a particular form. This is only for those who intended to read and process it. It is actually associated with the process of converting ordinary plain text into unintelligible text and vice-versa. In this method Cryptographers store and transmit data in a particular form, so that only it couldn’t read and process by any person other than intended. Cryptography secures the data from theft and alteration.

Cryptology and CryptAnalysis are the disciplines. Cryptography has close relation to them. It includes some techniques to secure the data and hide information in storage, such as microdots, merging words with images, and other ways to transit. However, in today’s modern-electronic world, it is easier than before. It is most often process of scrambling clear text into ciphertext (a process called encryption), and after encryption make it back again (known as decryption). People are doing this practice in this field and we call them as cryptographers.
Cryptography is not a new thing, it was effectively synonymous with encryption. Nowadays in modern world, it is mainly based on mathematical theory and computer science practice.

Modern cryptography concerns with the following objectives:

Its Confidentiality – Information inside cannot be decode by anyone

Integrity – There isn’t any alteration option of Information. Nobody can alter.

Non-repudiation – Once the transfer has completed, the sender cannot deny his/her intentions in the transmission of the information

Authentication – Confirmation process for both side. Sender and receiver.

So many banking sectors are using it. Like transactions of cards, computer passwords, and e- commerce transactions.

Types of Cryptography

There are three types of cryptography people mostly use:1. Symmetric-key cryptography

2. Hash functions.

3. Public-key cryptography

Symmetric-key Cryptography: In this way, both the sender and receiver share a single key. This key is used by sender to encrypt plain text and send back the encrypted text (cipher text) to the receiver. Upon receipt of that information, the receive can use the same single key to decrypt that information and then recover the plain text from the cipher text.Public-Key Cryptography: This is the most revolutionary concept in the last 300-400 years. This type of cryptography, we use two related keys (public and private key). Private key will be secret and it will not share publicly, while Public key may freely distributed in public. The public key is used for encryption and for decryption private key is used.

Hash Functions: No need of any public key or symmetric key in Hash Functions. A fixed-length of hash value is computed as per the plain text in this system. It makes impossible to recover the contents of the plain text. So many operating systems are using hash functions for encrypting password.

This require high end graphical hardware nowadays. These high end graphical hardware are expensive because of its demand. Cryptographers are using these equipment in encryption and decryption process. This process of this cryptography is known as mining nowadays. This mining process consumes a lot of computer CPU power and electricity. They generate blocks and put them in block chain everyday. If you have ever heard of block chain, this is the same process that I am telling here.
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